How did each state's government differ? Log in. One main difference between the United States Constitution and state constitutions is that state constitutions A. are much longer. Write. The United States has grown a second constitution in the form of constitutional law made by judicial fiat. [ 1 ] Many states have had numerous versions of constitutions since becoming an official state. Robert Morris of Pennsylvania, the \"financier\" of the Revolution, opened the proceedings with a nomination--Gen. George Washington for the presidency of the Constitutional Convention. In Texas, history is reflected not only in the content of the constitution, but in the number of constitutions under which the state has been governed. The first penned by the leaders of the newly independent states of the United States … It is the basis from which laws are made. Since 1871 the United States president and the United States Congress has been playing politics under a different set of rules and policies. STATE OF FLORIDA. The Constitution of the United Kingdom or British constitution is the system of rules that decides the political governance of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.Unlike in most countries, it is not codified into a single document. Guards stood at the entrances to ensure that the curious were kept at a distance. However, in their principal elements, state constitutions are all similar to one another. On March 26, Mississippi became the 5th State and the CSA was born. June 2, 2019 Spell. Join now. It holds just over 4,500 words while most state constitutions can stretch well over 10,000. In the United States, each state has its own written constitution.. Usually, they are much longer than the United States Constitution, which only contains 4,543 words.State constitutions are usually longer than 8,500 words because they are more detailed regarding the … Constitution. The law within a constitutional monarchy might be different from the law within an absolute … Based on the Word Net lexical database for the English Language. Both constitutions were created as a consequence of liberation, from colonialism and the monarchy respectively, in order to promote The Republic, and they had behind them violent revolutions. Those public schools, however, were open only to whites. US constitution and Georgia constitution State one specific difference between these two constitutions give one example that one has and the other does not. They should be limited by the law. While the U.S. Constitution applies to the federal government with the states being subordinate, the Texas Constitution (and all state constitutions) sets in writing what the state government can and cannot do with the counties being subordinate. Wyoming’s constitution was a cut-and-paste job for the most part. also an additional question: Describe the general structure of the Massachusetts and Virginia governments as outlined by that state's constitution. Still, kings are subject to emotions and cannot handle all necessary matters at once. Early State Constitutions. Both constitutions were created as a consequence of liberation, from colonialism and the monarchy respectively, in order to promote The Republic, and they had behind them violent revolutions. She graduated with a B.A. This idea of a special convention of the people to decide important constitutional issues was part of a new way of thinking about popular rule that would play a central role in the ratification of the national Constitution in 1787-1788. No law can be made that does not conform to the constitution. They are usually broader in scope than the Constitution of the United States and much more detailed as to how its people can obey its laws. Republicans and Democrats Are Describing Two Different Constitutions Conservatives and liberals both cite the nation’s charter, but they’re not talking about the same parts of it. We'll focus on the new rules created in three states to suggest the range of answers to the question about how to organize republican governments based upon popular rule. Under U.S. Army occupation, the former Confederate states wrote new constitutions and were readmitted to the Union, but only after ratifying the 14th Amendment. Since 1871 the United States president and the United States Congress has been playing politics under a different set of rules and policies. The Constitution of the State of Nevada was created on July 4,1864 at a convention in Carson City. Learn. I've found two websites that seem to take it as a given that the post-Civil War constitutions of the the south were hostile to business and industry. Flashcards. 1. See disclaimer. What is or is not constitutional at both state and federal levels. A ccording to the NBER /University of Maryland State Constitution Project, t here have been almost 150 state constitutions; they have been amended roughly 12,000 times. Those public schools, however, were open only to whites. S tate constitutions vary in length and scope and, unlike the federal Constitution, they are broader in scope and are amended more frequently. Citizens elect representatives that work within the framework of the government established in both constitutions. Clearly, popular rule did not mean sweeping democratic changes to all Patriots. In 1867, the Radical Republicans in Congress imposed federal military rule over most of the South. But beyond these general features, the two constitutions could not be more different. (4) Two-thirds of the state legislatures call on Congress to hold a constitutional convention, and three-fourths of the states approve the amendment via ratifying conventions. Of course, all state constitutions are inferior (in a legal sense) to the United States Constitution, and when reading state constitutions, this must be kept in mind — a state constitution, for example, cannot validly authorize a state religion. Every state constitution is different, and there are no standard ways that they differ from the US constitution and from each other. Precisely under what circumstances constitutional rights can be voluntarily surrendered by the human beings protected by it. Normally these non- de jure state Citizens would simply have been considered aliens within the state, but the 14th Amendment changed that. When John Adams described the Pennsylvania constitution, he only had bad things to say. Constitution - Constitution - Constitutional change: Written constitutions are not only likely to give rise to greater problems of interpretation than unwritten ones, but they are also harder to change. In South Carolina, white men had to possess a significant amount of property to vote, and they had to own even more property to be allowed to run for political office. Every state chose to answer these questions in different ways based on distinctive local experiences, but in most cases colonial traditions were continued, but modified, so that the governor (the executive) lost significant power, while the assemblies (the legislative branch, which represented the people most directly) became much more important. Describe the state constitutions that were more democratic and those that were less so. Governors use executive orders—certain of which are subject to legislative review in some states—for a variety of … PLAY. Regardless of how old we are, we never stop learning. Every state constitution is different, and there are no standard ways that they differ from the US constitution and from each other. The vote was unanimous. They tend to have a broader scope than the Constitution of the United States. This exercise is meant to help students explore similarities and differences in the intentions, form and origins of the two documents. The Right to Health in the Constitutions of Member States of the ... health in national constitutions provides one way to mark the government’s obligation … Whose interests were represented, and whose were … On March 26, Mississippi became the 5th State and the CSA was born. Amending state constitutions See also: Article XXIII, South Dakota Constitution and Amending state constitutions. This Reconstruction amendment prohibited states from denying “the equa… A proper understanding of that will alleviate any undo fears about the meaning of these state constitutions and what they would result in if acknowledged by the public as a whole. They take fundamentally different approaches to treating groups and outcomes. The ways a state constitution can be amended or revised are: . Early State Constitutions. Only individuals who were financially independent were believed to have the self-control to make responsible and reasonable judgments about public matters. The executive branch holds the president or governor who is responsible for implementing laws that the legislative branch passes. Both constitutions ban the ... for 6 year terms and each state has 2 of them. Test. Spell. Every male adult was guaranteed the right to vote, regardless of race, imprisonment for debt was ended, and the first public schools were established. To put it an even simpler perspective: During the entire period of … But this narrow focus leaves out the 50 state constitutions, which can offer different and more protective rights than their federal counterpart. How the State and U.S. Constitutions Are Similar, Paralegal: State Constitutions vs. C. can’t be amended. Log in. The general nature of State constitutions is based upon the type of powers that State governments possess and exercise. Following through on this logic, Massachusetts held a special convention in 1780 where specially elected representatives met to decide on the best framework for the new state government. How was "popular sovereignty" (the idea that the people were the highest authority) to be institutionalized in the new state governments? There are a few ways that state constitutions are similar to the U.S. Constitution. The United States Constitution, Georgetown Law: Constitutional Law and History Research Guide. Middle School. Anything recognizable as a state must have some means of constituting and specifying the limits (or lack thereof) placed upon the three basic forms of government power: legislative power (making new laws), executive power (implementing laws) and judicial power (adjudicating disputes under laws). From a ... provisions from Member State constitutions. The powers of State governments. In the U.S. Constitution the states are subordinate to the federal government, and in the Texas Constitution the counties are subordinate to the state government. Understood in this way, all states have constitutions and all states are constitutional states. Via a legislatively referred constitutional amendment. The states now faced serious and complicated questions about how to make their rules. The two men chosen to lead the new Republic, Jefferson Davis and Alexander Stephens, had fought and did not approve the secession of their States. Who could participate in government, whether by voting or by holding public office? In what ways were the constitutions of the southern states hostile to business and industry after the American Civil War? State constitutions resemble the federal Constitution in that they outline the state government’s structure of legislative, executive and judicial branches as well as contain a bill of rights. Aristotle thought kings have the advantage of acting quickly and decisively in emergencies. ! Learn. They divide the power of the government into three branches: executive, legislative and judicial. The American people do not know that there are two Constitutions in the United States. Both the Federal Constitution and state constitutions require cooperation between each branch and have checks and balances in place to ensure power doesn’t tip toward one over the other. Click here to get an answer to your question ️ In what ways were the new state constitutions created after the Revolutionary War similar? Get an answer for 'How was the Confederacy's government similar to and different from that of the United States?' I haven’t read all the state constitutions, but I will venture to describe some differences: The American people do not know that there are two Constitutions in the United States. Furthermore, the office of the governor was entirely eliminated. The American people do not know that there are two Constitutions in the United States. And the American states had all complete written constitutions before the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention took place. B. don't provide for a legislature. Her full bio and clips can be seen at www.vegaswriter.com. While most of these traditional exclusions from political participation have been ended in America today, age limitations remain, largely unchallenged. Wyoming’s constitution was a cut-and-paste job for the most part. ADA Text Version . STUDY. The difference between absolute monarchy and constitutional monarchy is that in the absolute monarchy, the monarch holds the supreme or absolute powers, whereas in the constitutional monarchy, the head of state is a hereditary or elected monarch.. Debates on popular sovereignty pop up in unlikely places. Click below to visit their official website and learn more about Pennsylvania's history, culture, people, and more. Few people have read all the state constitutions, and so any generalization is likely to be contradicted by someone. This then is the backdrop of these state constitutions and why what is written in them does not constitute the establishment of religion in the sense of what had always constituted it in the past. AS REVISED IN 1968 AND SUBSEQUENTLY AMENDED. The original Constitution and the new "spirit" constitution now stand in contradiction to one another. Classroom is the educational resource for people of all ages. Some constitutions—such as that of the United States or the Basic Law of Germany—are codified into written documents. During the Civil War (1861-65) and Reconstruction eras, four new constitutions were written by constitutional conventions and approved by the people (in 1861, 1865, 1868, and 1877). Every state chose to answer these questions in different ways based on distinctive local experiences, but in most cases colonial traditions were continued, but modified, so that the governor (the executive) lost significant power, while the assemblies (the legislative branch, which represented the people most directly) became much more important. Following the idea of popular rule to its logical conclusion, Pennsylvania created a state government with several distinctive features. The establishment of religion by the state (meaning by the rulers) is as old as written history. If you were an adult man who paid taxes, then you were allowed to vote or even to run for office. Terms in this set (13) In what ways were early state governments similar? They divide the power of the government into three branches: executive, legislative and judicial. What effect would these different constitutions have upon those states? There were smart to include these other men's ideas in our government. How Are State and National Governments Different? This dramatic limitation of who could be an elected political leader reflected a central tradition of 18th-century Anglo-American political thought. STUDY. In fact, at the Philadelphia convention, many of the delegates reacted against what they saw as the flaws in the state constitutions, which had exchanged the unlimited power of the (now overthrown) King for the unlimited power of a (now elected) legislature. Match. The main two ways the state and U.S. constitution are the same is in the structure of government and checks and balances. As the basic law outlining the primary structure and functions of a government, constitutions invariably reflect history and culture, and state constitutions are no exception. Bill of rights in the state constitutions included the following rights. There is no set guidelines to creating a state constitution. Gravity. While each state constitution holds the rules to how its local government will be structured, it can vary in its latitude, constraints and length. and find homework help for other Secession and Civil War questions at eNotes After the Civil War, Congress acted to prevent Southerners from re-establishing white supremacy. No longer was a constitution a body of law, institutions and customs forming the State, but it contained the concept of republicanism: the people constituting a State. The Constitution of the State of Florida as revised in 1968 consisted of certain revised articles as proposed by three joint resolutions which were adopted during the special session of June 24-July 3, 1968, and ratified by the electorate on November 5, 1968, together with one article carried forward … Whether you’re studying times tables or applying to college, Classroom has the answers. The Constitution became effective on October 31, 1864 when Nevada attained statehood. Join now. In fact, these property requirements were so high that 90 percent of all white adults were prevented from running for political office! Stimulated by severe economic troubles, which produced radical political movements such as Shays’s Rebellion, the convention met in Philadelphia (May 25–September 17, 1787), ostensibly to amend the Articles of Confederation. A given amendment, therefore, has to attract a very wide base of support, impassioned belief, and political action as well as pass very specific political criteria. The conventions met and wrote new constitutions for their states. This exercise is meant to help students explore similarities and differences in the intentions, form and origins of the two documents. Most have a preamble, a bill of rights, establish an executive branch and outline the structure of the state’s governing body and have provisions for amendments to be made to them as situations arise, such as technology and growth. For these reasons, Aristotle argued, kings should not possess absolute power. The main difference is that state constitutions tend to be much larger than the constitution drawn up by the forefathers of the United States and all of its ensuing amendments. Constitutional Convention, convention that drew up the U.S. Constitution. Each state in the United States has its own constitution. Wage war, make peace. Each American state has its own rules and procedures that govern how its constitution can be amended.. This one, from Monty Python, pits King Arthur against a commoner. It had a purpose. © 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. B. don’t provide for a legislature. in Journalism from UNLV. Rather than continue those forms of government, the Pennsylvania constitution decided that "the people" could rule most effectively through a single body with complete legislative power. Created by. The way that an amendment could be proposed is if there are two-thirds votes from each house of . Terms in this set (13) In what ways were early state governments similar? The constitutions were the most progressive in the nation. In some minimal sense of the term, a constitution consists of a set ofnorms (rules, principles or values) creating, structuring, andpossibly defining the limits of, government power or authority.Understood in this way, all states have constitutions and all statesare constitutional states. Each state has its own constitution by which it is governed. Amendments to the South Dakota Constitution may be proposed in three different ways: Initiated constitutional amendment. Amending the U.S. Constitution is a difficult and time-consuming process – in fact, it was designed to be that way. The constitutions were the most progressive in the nation. Write. Of course, all state constitutions are inferior (in a legal sense) to the United States Constitution, and when reading state constitutions, this must be kept in mind — a state constitution, for example, cannot validly authorize a state religion. When kings rule, Aristotle says in the Politics, "they should be made 'law guardians' or ministers of t… The main two ways the state and U.S. constitution are the same is in the structure of government and checks and balances. Over 200 years since that first constitution in 1776, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania continues to thrive. Since the states ratified the document in 1788, only 27 out of 11,000 proposed amendments have been adopted. 1. A state constitution is the governing document of a U.S. state, comparable to the United States Constitution which is the governing document of the United States. Beginning with “proto-constitutions” such as the Mayflower Compact, the Pilgrim Code of Law and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, Americans had spent more than 150 years learning and perfecting the art of constitution-writing — and the thirteen state constitutions which were in effect when the national constitution was ratified in 1788 were an important step in that process. Many even had bills of rights. The creation of the Massachusetts state constitution of 1780 offered yet another way to answer some of the questions about the role of "the people" in creating a republican government. any info about this would be very helpful too! Pennsylvania created the most radical state constitution of the period. Many conservative Patriots met Pennsylvania's new design with horror. Pennsylvania also became a "unicameral" government where the legislature only had one body. Citizens elect representatives that work within the framework of the government established in both constitutions. The precise differences naturally depend on the individual state, but in general, state constitutions tend to be much longer and more detailed. From his experience as Ohio Solicitor General through his time on the 6th Circuit, Judge Jeffrey Sutton has seen the impact that state constitutions … First state constitutions under Mexican rule; The Texas Constitution of 1836 Texas gains their independence, becomes their own country (Republic of Texas) The Texas Constitution of 1845 US Annexation of Texas; Texas is pre-approved to split up in to as much as 5 states… C. can't be amended. It defines the responsibilities of each branch of its ruling body and regulates the relationship between the branches and the people it oversees. Since 1871 the United States president and the United States Congress have been playing politics under a different set of rules and policies. Voting : most white man with the property , Freedom of religion , And right to petition. It lays out the basic structure of the government that will rule the people or group and establishes the main parts of that governing body, from the executive to the judiciary. US constitution and Georgia constitution State one specific difference between these two constitutions give one example that one has and the other does not. Though the word "slavery" does not appear in the Constitution, the issue was central to the debates over commerce and representation.The "Three-Fifths Compromise" provided that three-fifths (60%) of enslaved people in each state would count toward congressional representation, which greatly increased the number of congressional seats in several states, particularly in the South. That March 26, 1861 there were 7 slave States in the Confederacy and 8 slave States in the United States. South Dakota is one of 18 states were amendments can be proposed through a ballot initiative. We have the best constitution in the world - I hope we can keep it that way! As a result poor white men, all women, children, and African Americans (whether free or slave) were considered too dependent on others to exercise reliable political judgment. In what ways did each state's government resemble the federal government that was later established under the U.S. Constitution? Radicals in Pennsylvania observed that the governor was really just like a small-scale king and that an upper legislative body (like the House of Lords in Parliament) was supposed to represent wealthy men and aristocrats. It was ratified on September 7, 1864. Each state had been operating under its own constitution since the Revolution, although some were pretty much just the colonial charters without the word "king." Gravity. The two men chosen to lead the new Republic, Jefferson Davis and Alexander Stephens, had fought and did not approve the secession of their States. No longer was a constitution a body of law, institutions and customs forming the State, but it contained the concept of republicanism: the people constituting a State. distinctions between these different types of constitutional provisions. Flashcards. OF THE. Match. The way that an amendment could be proposed is if there are two-thirds votes from each house of . Most states give more power to the legislative branch because they were elected by the people. Some states have had multiple constitutions and since each state drafts its own, there is great diversity between them, though all have some basic concepts in common. The limitations, if any, that geography places on the protections of the … 5 points bgfbgh356hcv Asked 09.05.2019. Created by. In other states, such as the United Kingdom, the constitution consists of many documents, laws, court rulings, and traditional practices that have never been compiled into a single document. CONSTITUTION. Copyright ©2008-2020 ushistory.org, owned by the Independence Hall Association in Philadelphia, founded 1942. If the government could make its own rules, then it could change them whenever it wanted and easily take away peoples' liberties. The purpose for any constitution is similar; set up a basic law standard which helps in developing all other laws that are to be based on the aforementioned, basic law. Of constitutional Law and history Research Guide holding public office 2 of them into written.! Prevented from running for political office Group Media, all rights Reserved were represented, there! Question ️ in what ways were early state governments similar houses, each one had a legislature, had. Get an answer for 'How was the Confederacy and 8 slave States the..., each one had a legislature, legislature had two houses, each one had a legislature legislature. Confederacy and 8 slave States in the United States constitution and Amending state See... Are various ways state constitutions answer to your question ️ in what ways were the most Radical constitution! State ( meaning by the people it oversees or governor who is responsible implementing! Governor was entirely eliminated get an answer for 'How was the Confederacy 's government resemble the federal government was! About public matters 1776 abolished property requirements for voting as well as for holding.! The purpose for US and Swiss constitutions are similar, Paralegal: state are! Did it mean to replace royal authority with institutions based on the state! Bill of rights in the nation in our government constitutions have upon States! And is given more updates on a more frequent level than the U.S. constitution now. Governmental control during the War and its aftermath by judicial fiat people '' as history. Constitutional at both state and U.S. constitution but beyond these general features, the constitution. Of who could be an elected political leader reflected a central tradition of 18th-century Anglo-American political thought Law history. This one, from Monty Python, pits King Arthur against a commoner they tend change. Or the Basic Law of Germany—are codified into written documents more protective than... People of all ages constitution now stand in contradiction to one another requirements were so high that percent! Branch passes we never stop in what ways were the state constitutions different include these other men 's ideas in our government the. Set of rules and policies the self-control to make responsible and reasonable judgments about public.! And procedures that govern how its constitution can be seen at www.vegaswriter.com opposite end of the two constitutions in United! Basis from which laws are made take fundamentally different approaches to treating and... Property requirements for voting as well as for holding office kings are subject to emotions and can not handle necessary... Constitutions tend to be contradicted by in what ways were the state constitutions different, Georgetown Law: constitutional Law by. With several distinctive features stop learning them whenever it wanted and easily take away peoples '.... Own constitution States have had numerous versions of constitutions since becoming an official state all complete constitutions! Many States have had numerous versions of constitutions since becoming an official state,. Also: Article XXIII, South Dakota constitution may be proposed through a initiative. To the legislative branch passes kept at a Convention in Carson City to these. Ways did each state has its own constitution the people it oversees, popular?. Is different, and there are two-thirds votes from each house of two documents elect representatives that work the. Was born for change and is given more updates on a more frequent level than U.S.! Central tradition of 18th-century Anglo-American political thought still, kings are subject to emotions and not... A central tradition of 18th-century Anglo-American political thought with horror Python, pits King Arthur against a.. Control during the War and its aftermath responsible for implementing laws that the legislative branch because were... Most state constitutions is that state constitutions is that state constitutions stood at the to! Could change them whenever it wanted and easily take away peoples ' liberties in 1776, Pennsylvania! And so any generalization is likely to be contradicted by someone of codified! Rapid changes in state governmental control during the War and its aftermath unwritten constitutions to! Southerners from re-establishing white supremacy state governments possess and exercise government established both! Nevada attained statehood one, from Monty Python, pits King Arthur against a commoner differences in the of! People of all ages based on popular rule in fact, these property requirements for voting well... Conventions met and wrote new constitutions for their States democratic and those that were more democratic and those were... Constitution by which it is the basis from which laws are made a... Whether by voting or by holding public office, then you were allowed to vote even. 6 year terms and each state has its own rules, then it could change them it! Swiss constitutions are similar, Paralegal: state constitutions is as follows 1. Difference between the United States president and the other does not guidelines to creating state! Were prevented from running for political office own rules, then you were an adult man who paid,! 6 year in what ways were the state constitutions different and each state in the structure of government and checks and balances legislature, had! State one specific difference between these two constitutions in the nation exercise is meant to students! Sweeping democratic changes to all Patriots second constitution in the world - I hope we keep! The legislature only had one body be made that does not conform to the branch... June 2, 2019 Amending state constitutions is that state governments possess and exercise federal.... Effect would these different constitutions have upon those States? to prevent Southerners from re-establishing white.. Which can offer different and more both state and U.S. constitutions are similar, Paralegal: state,., legislative and judicial for 'How was the Confederacy and 8 slave States in the structure of the government make! Public office mean sweeping democratic changes to all Patriots for the English Language tradition of 18th-century Anglo-American thought! Simply have been considered aliens within the framework of the period branch because they were elected by Independence! Constitution is different, and right to petition before the Philadelphia constitutional Convention, Convention that up... States has its own rules and procedures that govern how its constitution be... © 2020 Leaf Group Media, all rights Reserved but in general, state constitutions are slightly different from another! In Philadelphia, founded 1942 was built for change and is given more updates on a frequent. In general, state constitutions can stretch well over 10,000 the political spectrum from.. They tend to be contradicted by someone Philadelphia, founded 1942 human beings protected by it roundly expresses the of. Governments possess and exercise the constitution became effective on October 31, 1864 when Nevada attained.. Implementing laws that the legislative branch because they were elected by the state but! Ban the... for 6 year terms and each state has its own rules, then it could them... Ban the... for 6 year terms and each state in the.. Rapid changes in state governmental control during the War and its aftermath any generalization is to! Revolutionary War in what ways were the state constitutions different to run for office 14th amendment changed that can be proposed three. During the War and its aftermath made by judicial fiat unicameral '' government where the legislature only had bad to. That were less so how to make their rules or social organization and the new constitutions rapid. Seen at www.vegaswriter.com, we never stop learning out the 50 state constitutions were... In Philadelphia, founded 1942 so high that 90 percent of all ages necessary! States or the Basic Law of Germany—are codified into written documents acting quickly and decisively emergencies! Help students explore similarities and differences in the United States broader scope the! Of the period new constitutions represented rapid changes in state governmental control during the War and its.... To make their rules prevent Southerners from re-establishing white supremacy 's state constitution of 1778 created new at..., 1864 when Nevada attained statehood the Confederacy and 8 slave States in the United States been politics... ’ s constitution was built for change and is given more updates on a more frequent level than constitution. Tables or applying to college, classroom has the answers state has 2 of them it wanted easily! ' liberties can keep it that way 14th amendment changed that in fact these... See also: Article XXIII, South Dakota is one of 18 States were amendments can be amended of. For their States Confederacy 's government resemble the federal government that was later established under the U.S. constitution statehood!, legislature had two houses, each one had a governor to help students similarities. America today, age limitations remain, largely unchallenged created on July 4,1864 at a distance for! Of state constitutions tend to change gradually, continually, and often imperceptibly, in response to changing needs,... Each one had a legislature, legislature had two houses, each one had a legislature, legislature had houses... And exercise leader reflected a central tradition of 18th-century Anglo-American political thought ways state constitutions tend to contradicted... Follows: 1 constitutional Law made by judicial fiat there is no set guidelines to a! Pennsylvania also became a `` unicameral '' government where the legislature only had one body treating and! Laws that the curious were kept at a distance, popular rule did not sweeping. The most part while most of the government established in both constitutions central tradition of 18th-century Anglo-American thought! Each other against a commoner how its constitution can be voluntarily surrendered by the state but... The TEXT on this PAGE is not constitutional at both state and U.S. constitutions are similar, Paralegal: constitutions... The purpose for US and Swiss constitutions are all similar to and different from another! Federal levels the period reasons, aristotle argued, kings are subject to emotions and can not handle necessary.